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Adolescent smoking is associated with an increased risk of problem alcohol drinking later in life, but the biological basis for this vulnerability is unknown. The researchers administered nicotine via daily injections to the animals during adolescence or adulthood, then measured alcohol self-administration after a delay, enabling the adolescent rats to reach adulthood. The rats exposed to adolescent nicotine pushed a lever to obtain a slightly sweetened alcohol drink more often for a greater daily intake of ethanol compared to rats that did not experience nicotine or rats or that only experienced nicotine during adulthood. The researchers found that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine exposure altered the function of the normally inhibitory midbrain circuitry mediated by the neurotransmitter, GABA. Specific GABA signals that were normally inhibitory in response to alcohol began to shift toward excitatory. By altering the midbrain "reward-mediating" circuitry of the brain, this shift in alcohol-induced GABA signaling led to a long-lasting enhancement of alcohol self-administration in rats that were given nicotine at a young age. The long-term neuronal changes are caused by a decreasing function in a chloride transporter called KCC2 in rat midbrain neurons. Specifically, they found that these neurons less efficiently regulated chloride movement across the outer cell membrane, and this basic function altered alcohol's influence over the midbrain reward center. This research, funded mainly by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NS021229, DA036572, DA009411), was a team effort at Penn with major contributions by graduate student, Alyse Thomas, and postdoctoral associate, Alexey Ostroumov. Dani's team is now investigating whether the change in midbrain circuitry is the basis for adolescent nicotine acting as a gateway to other drugs of addiction, such as cocaine and morphine. Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient nimh.nih.gov care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $7.8 billion enterprise. The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top medical schools in the United States for more than 20 years, according to U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, check my source with $405 million awarded in the 2017 fiscal year. The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and Penn Presbyterian Medical Center -- which are recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report -- Chester County Hospital; Lancaster General Health; Penn Medicine Princeton Health; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital - the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751.
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Most patients, however, will relapse when they no longer receive the alternative reward. Researchers used an animal model, where rats voluntarily abstain from drug self-administration when given food rewards. In this model, the rats choose to abstain from methamphetamine or heroin when an alternative non-drug reward is available, but relapse to drug seeking when the alternative reward is removed. Using chemogenetic manipulations, electron microscopy, and other techniques, the scientists identified the anterior insular cortex-to-central amygdala nerve path as critical to the relapse process. These findings provide insights into the brain mechanisms underlying relapse after successful contingency management treatment and identify a potential novel target for relapse prevention using brain stimulation methods. The research was performed by Marco Venniro and other members of the laboratories of Yavin Shaham and Marisela Morales at the NIDA Intramural Research Program , in collaboration with other NIDA investigators, and extramural investigators. For a copy of the paper, go to “ The anterior insular cortex→central amygdala glutamatergic pathway is critical to relapse after contingency management ,” published in Neuron. For more information about drug addiction treatment, go to: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction For more information, contact the NIDA press office at firstname.lastname@example.org or 301-443-6245. Follow NIDA on Twitter and Facebook . About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a component of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the world’s research on the health aspects of drug use and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy, improve practice, and advance addiction science. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found at www.drugabuse.gov , which is now compatible with your smartphone, iPad or tablet. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA’s DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or email requests to email@example.com . Online ordering is available at drugpubs.drugabuse.gov . NIDA’s media guide can be found at www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/dear-journalist , and its easy-to-read website can be found at www.easyread.drugabuse.gov . You can follow NIDA on Twitter and Facebook . About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S.https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2017/10/study-identifies-brain-pathway-involved-in-drug-relapse-after-cessation-contingency-management
“Most people with substance use disorder have some trauma associated with the substance use, because they’re not acting in accordance with their own values when they’re in the midst of the substance abuse,” says Jodi Lycett, a clinical mental health counselor and the primary therapist at Maple Mountain, a trauma-informed addiction treatment center outside Salt Lake City. Sponsored adThis sponsor paid to have this advertisement placed in this section. People who have been living in active addiction might feel traumatized by the ways that they have harmed themselves or their loved ones, or they may have experienced trauma while living on the streets or interacting with the criminal justice system. At the very least, many people who are getting sober are also confronting actions they took that they are deeply uncomfortable with. “We at least have to do that much with them even if they don’t have past trauma as well,” Lycett says. In order to help clients heal and have greater success in sobriety in both the short and long-term, counselors at Maple Mountain help clients understand trauma, its physical and psychological effects, and how it can interact with substance use disorder. Trauma has become a word that is used frequently, so it’s important to have a set definition to understand what clinicians mean by trauma. “Trauma is an event that is so upsetting that it overwhelms a person’s mind, body and spirit so that they’re unable to make sense of it,” Lycett explains. Sponsored adThis sponsor paid to have this advertisement placed in this section. When someone experiences trauma, their amygdala--the primitive part of the brain that controls memory, emotions and survival instincts--becomes overactive. “It’s like an antenna is always up and the brain is constantly looking for and perceiving threats,” Lycett says. This can trap people in a loop of anxiety, fear and vulnerability, which characterizes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The response makes sense for people who are under constant threat — like those living in a war zone. However, for people who experienced an event and now lead a generally safe life, being constantly on edge becomes a hindrance.https://www.thefix.com/treating-trauma-short-and-long-term